Biological Computers: The Future of Computing


In today’s world, computers and the internet have become integral parts of our daily lives. However, the technology used in these electronic devices has several limitations, such as power consumption and processing speed. To overcome these limitations, scientists are exploring the possibility of using biological computers. In an article published few days back in Frontiers in Science, the team outlines how biological computers could surpass today’s electronic computers for certain applications while using a small fraction of the electricity required by today’s computers and server farms.

What are Biological Computers and their Future?

Biological computers are computers that use biological molecules, such as DNA and proteins, to perform computational tasks. These molecules have unique properties that can be harnessed to perform complex calculations. Biological computers have the potential to perform specific tasks much faster and with less energy consumption than electronic computers.

How do Biological Computers Work?

Biological computers work by encoding information into DNA or other biological molecules. The biological molecules are then manipulated using specific biochemical reactions to perform calculations. The output of these calculations is read using various detection methods, such as fluorescence, spectrophotometry, or gel electrophoresis.

Advantages of Biological Computers

Energy Efficiency

One of the biggest advantages of biological computers is their energy efficiency. The power required to run a biological computer is much less than that required for an electronic computer. This is because biological computers use molecular processes that require less energy than electronic processes.

Parallel Processing

Biological computers can perform calculations in parallel, allowing them to process large amounts of data simultaneously. This makes them ideal for tasks such as DNA sequencing and protein folding.


Biological computers can be programmed to perform a wide range of tasks, including data processing, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. This versatility makes them ideal for use in fields such as biotechnology and medicine.

Challenges of Biological Computers

While biological computers have several advantages, there are also some challenges associated with their development and use.


Biological computers are complex systems that require specialized knowledge and expertise to develop and use. This complexity can make it difficult to integrate biological computers into existing technologies and workflows.


Biological molecules are sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature and pH, which can affect their stability and performance. This makes it important to carefully control the conditions under which biological computers are used.

Limited Memory

Biological computers have limited memory capacity compared to electronic computers. This can limit the complexity of the calculations that can be performed using biological computers.

Applications of Biological Computers

Biological computers have several potential applications in various fields, including:


Biological computers can be used for tasks such as DNA sequencing and protein folding, which are important for drug discovery and development.

Medical Diagnostics

Biological computers can be used to detect and diagnose diseases, such as cancer, by detecting specific biomarkers in biological samples.

Environmental Monitoring

Biological computers can be used to monitor environmental factors such as pollution and climate change.

Future of Biological Computers

Biological computers have the potential to revolutionize computing and transform several fields, including biotechnology, medicine, and environmental monitoring. As research in this area continues, we can expect to see the development of more advanced biological computers with increased memory capacity and processing power.


Biological computers represent a significant step forward in the field of computing. They offer several advantages over traditional electronic computers, including energy efficiency, parallel processing, and versatility. However, there are also challenges associated with their development and use. As research in this area continues, we can expect to see the development of more advanced biological computers that will transform several fields and change the way we approach complex problems.

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